Thatcherism撒切尔主义----The election of 1979 returned the Conservative Party to power and Margaret Thatcher became the first woman prime minister in Britain. Her policies are popularly referred to as state-owned industries, the use of monetarist policies to control inflation, the weaking of trade forces unions, the strengthening of the role of market forces in the economy, and an emphasis on law and order.
The Trade Union Act of 1871工会法----It legalized the trade unions and give financial security. It meant that in law there was no difference between money for benefic purposes and collecting it to support strike action.
Agribusiness农业产业----The new farming has been called “agribusiness”, because it is equipped and managed like an industrial business with a set of inputs into the processes which occur on the farm and outputs or products which leave the farm.
British disease英国病----The term “British disease” is now often used to characterize Britain’s economic decline.
Constitutional monarchy君主立宪制----It is a political system that has been practised in Britain since the Glorious revolution of 1688. According to this system, the Constitution is superior to the Monarch. In law, the Monarch has many supreme powers, but in practice, the real power of monarchy has been greatly reduced and today the Queen acts solely on the advice of her ministers. She reigns but does not rule. The real power lies in the Parliament, or to be exact, in the House of Commons.
Privy Council枢密院----A consultative body of the British monarch. Its origin can be traced back to the times of the Norman Kings. After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, its importance was gradually diminished and replaced by the Cabinet. Today, it is still a consultation body of the British monarch, Its membership is about 400, and includes al Cabinet ministers, the speaker of the House of Commons, the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, and senior British and Commonwealth statesmen.
The National Health Service----It is a very important part of the welfare system in Britain. It is a nationwide organization based on Acts of Parliament. It provides all kinds of free or nearly free medical treatment both in hospital and outside. It is financed mainly by payments by the state out of general taxation. People are not obliged to use this service. The service is achieving its main objectives with outstanding success.
Comprehensive schools----Comprehensives schools take pupils without reference to ability or aptitude and provide a wide-ranging secondary education for all or most of the children in a district.
Reuters----It was founded in 1851 by the German, Julius Reuter. It is now a publicly owned company, employing over 11000 staff in 80 countries. It has more than 1300 staff journalists and photographers.
The Crown Court----A criminal court that deals with the more serious cases and holds sessions in towns throughout England and Wales. It is presided over either by a judge from the High Court of Justice or a local full-time judge.
The Great lakes----The Great Lakes are the five lakes in the northeast. They are Lake Superior which is the largest fresh water lake in the world, Lake Michigan (the only one entirely in the U.S.), Lake Huron, Lake Eire and Lake Ontario. They are all located between Canada and the United States expect Lake Michigan.
The Mississippi----The Mississippi has been called “father of waters “or” old man river”. It and Its tributaries drain one of the richest farm areas in the world. It is the fourth longest river in the world and the most important river in the United States.
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